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Hidden categories: Use dmy dates from December Pages using sports table with possibly ignored parameters. The Assembly of the Republic is a unicameral body composed of up to deputies.
Elected by universal suffrage according to a system of closed party-list proportional representation , deputies serve four-year terms of office, unless the President dissolves the Assembly and calls for new elections.
The Portuguese legal system is part of the civil law legal system, also called the continental family legal system.
The main laws include the Constitution , as amended , the Portuguese Civil Code , as amended and the Penal Code of Portugal , as amended. Other relevant laws are the Commercial Code , as amended and the Civil Procedure Code , as amended.
The Public Ministry , headed by the Attorney General of the Republic, constitutes the independent body of public prosecutors. Portuguese laws were applied in the former colonies and territories and continue to be major influences for those countries.
Portugal was the first country in the world to abolish life imprisonment in and was one of the first countries to abolish the death penalty. Maximum jail sentences are limited to 25 years.
Portugal is also known for having decriminalized the usage of all common drugs in , the first country in the world to do so.
Portugal decriminalized possession of effectively all drugs that are still illegal in other developed nations including cannabis , cocaine , heroin , and LSD.
While possession is legal, trafficking and possession of more than "10 days worth of personal use" are still punishable by jail time and fines.
People caught with small amounts of any drug are given the choice to go to a rehab facility, and may refuse treatment without consequences. Despite criticism from other European nations, who stated Portugal's drug consumption would tremendously increase, overall drug use has declined along with the number of HIV infection cases, which had dropped 50 percent by Drug use among to year-olds also declined, however the use of marijuana rose only slightly among that age group.
LGBTI rights have increased substantially in the past years. On 27 August , Portugal added the anti-discrimination employment law on the basis of sexual orientation.
The law came into force on 5 June Portugal has 49 correctional facilities in total run by the Ministry of Justice. They include 17 central prisons, 4 special prisons, 27 regional prisons, and 1 'Cadeia de Apoio' Support Detention Centre.
Operationally, the municipality and civil parish, along with the national government, are the only legally local administrative units identified by the government of Portugal for example, cities, towns or villages have no standing in law, although may be used as catchment for the defining services.
For statistical purposes the Portuguese government also identifies Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics NUTS , inter-municipal communities and informally, the district system, used until European integration and being phased-out by the national government.
In , Portugal co-founded the Community of Portuguese Language Countries CPLP , also known as the Lusophone Commonwealth, an international organization and political association of Lusophone nations across four continents, where Portuguese is an official language.
It has a friendship alliance and dual citizenship treaty with its former colony, Brazil. Portugal and the United Kingdom share the world's oldest active military accord through their Anglo-Portuguese Alliance Treaty of Windsor , which was signed in The armed forces have three branches: Navy , Army and Air Force.
They serve primarily as a self-defense force whose mission is to protect the territorial integrity of the country and provide humanitarian assistance and security at home and abroad.
As of [update] , the three branches numbered 39, active personnel including 7, women. Military conscription was abolished in The minimum age for voluntary recruitment is 18 years.
The Army 21, personnel comprises three brigades and other small units. The Navy 10, personnel, of which 1, are marines , the world's oldest surviving naval force, has five frigates, seven corvettes, two submarines, and 28 patrol and auxiliary vessels.
In addition to the three branches of the armed forces, there is the National Republican Guard , a security force subject to military law and organization gendarmerie comprising 25, personnel.
This force is under the authority of both the Defense and the Interior Ministry. It has provided detachments for participation in international operations in Iraq and East Timor.
The Portuguese government is heavily indebted, and received a billion-euro bailout from the European Union and the International Monetary Fund in May After the bailout was announced, the Portuguese government headed by Pedro Passos Coelho managed to implement measures with the intention of improving the state's financial situation, including tax hikes, a freeze of civil service-related lower-wages and cuts of higher-wages by The Portuguese government also agreed to eliminate its golden share in Portugal Telecom which gave it veto power over vital decisions.
This allowed considerable slippage in state-managed public works and inflated top management and head officer bonuses and wages.
Persistent and lasting recruitment policies boosted the number of redundant public servants. Risky credit , public debt creation, and European structural and cohesion funds were mismanaged across almost four decades.
The case of BPN was particularly serious because of its size, market share, and the political implications — Portugal's then President, Cavaco Silva and some of his political allies, maintained personal and business relationships with the bank and its CEO, who was eventually charged and arrested for fraud and other crimes.
Since the Carnation Revolution of , which culminated in the end of one of Portugal's most notable phases of economic expansion that started in the s ,  a significant change has occurred in the nation's annual economic growth.
Since the s, Portugal's public consumption -based economic development model has been slowly changing to a system that is focused on exports, private investment and the development of the high-tech sector.
Consequently, business services have overtaken more traditional industries such as textiles, clothing, footwear and cork Portugal is the world's leading cork producer ,  wood products and beverages.
In the second decade of the 21st century, the Portuguese economy suffered its most severe recession since the s, resulting in the country having to be bailed out by the European Commission, European Central Bank and International Monetary Fund IMF.
In May , the country exited the bailout but reaffirmed its commitment to maintaining its reformist momentum. At the time of exiting the bailout, the economy had contracted by 0.
The Global Competitiveness Report for —, published by the World Economic Forum , placed Portugal on the 36th position on the economic index.
The Economist Intelligence Unit 's quality of life index placed Portugal as the country with the 19th-best quality of life in the world for , ahead of other economically and technologically advanced countries like France, Germany, the United Kingdom and South Korea, but 9 places behind its sole neighbour, Spain.
The PSI is Portugal's most selective and widely known stock index. The International Monetary Fund issued an update report on the economy of Portugal in late-June with a strong near-term outlook and an increase in investments and exports over previous years.
Because of a surplus in , the country was no longer bound by the Excessive Deficit Procedure which had been implemented during an earlier financial crisis.
The banking system was more stable, although there were still non-performing loans and corporate debt. The IMF recommended working on solving these problems for Portugal to be able to attract more private investment.
Agriculture in Portugal is based on small to medium-sized family-owned dispersed units. The country produces a wide variety of crops and livestock products, including: tomatoes , citrus , green vegetables , rice , wheat , barley , maize , olives , oilseeds , nuts , cherries , bilberry , table grapes , edible mushrooms , dairy products , poultry and beef.
Traditionally a sea power, Portugal has had a strong tradition in the Portuguese fishing sector and is one of the countries with the highest fish consumption per capita.
Portuguese-processed fish products are exported through several companies, under a number of different brands and registered trademarks, such as Ramirez , the world's oldest active canned fish producer.
Portugal is a significant European minerals producer and is ranked among Europe's leading copper producers. The nation is also a notable producer of tin , tungsten and uranium.
However, the country lacks the potential to conduct hydrocarbon exploration and aluminium , a limitation that has hindered the development of Portugal's mining and metallurgy sectors.
Although the country has vast iron and coal reserves — mainly in the north — after the revolution and the consequent economic globalization , low competitiveness forced a decrease in the extraction activity for these minerals.
The Panasqueira and Neves-Corvo mines are among the most recognized Portuguese mines that are still in operation.
The largest lithium mine in Europe is operated by Grupo Mota, Felmica, in the Guarda region, which is estimated to have reserves for 30 years of production.
It has 5 more deposits in its possession. Lithium prices have risen in expectation of growing demand for the mineral, which is used in batteries for electric vehicles and for storing electricity from the power grid.
Europe consumes more than 20 per cent of the global supply of battery-grade lithium but currently has to import all its supplies of the mineral.
The so-called reverse circulation drilling program included 15 holes with around 2, metres of total drilling.
The objective is to extend resources by integrating the data from drilling results with the expansion expected with the ongoing campaign.
Volkswagen Group's AutoEuropa motor vehicle assembly plant in Palmela is among the largest foreign direct investment projects in Portugal.
Modern non-traditional technology-based industries, such as aerospace , biotechnology and information technology , have been developed in several locations across the country.
Following the turn of the 21st century, many major biotechnology and information technology industries have been founded, and are concentrated in the metropolitan areas of Lisbon , Porto , Braga , Coimbra and Aveiro.
The banking and insurance sectors performed well until the financial crisis of — , and this partly reflected a rapid deepening of the market in Portugal.
While sensitive to various types of market and underwriting risks , it has been estimated that overall both the life and non-life sectors will be able to withstand a number of severe shocks, even though the impact on individual insurers varies widely.
Travel and tourism continue to be extremely important for Portugal. It has been necessary for the country to focus upon its niche attractions, such as health, nature and rural tourism, to stay ahead of its competitors.
Portugal is among the top 20 most-visited countries in the world, receiving an average of 20,, foreign tourists each year. Lisbon attracts the sixteenth-most tourists among European cities  with seven million tourists occupying the city's hotels in Also, between 5—6 million religious pilgrims visit Fatima each year, where apparitions of the Blessed Virgin Mary to three shepherd children reportedly took place in The Portuguese government continues to promote and develop new tourist destinations, such as the Douro Valley , the island of Porto Santo , and Alentejo.
The legend of the Rooster of Barcelos tells the story of a dead rooster's miraculous intervention in proving the innocence of a man who had been falsely accused and sentenced to death.
The Rooster of Barcelos is bought by thousands of tourists as a national souvenir. A number of both national and multinational high-tech and industrial companies, are also responsible for research and development projects.
One of the oldest learned societies of Portugal is the Sciences Academy of Lisbon , founded in Iberian bilateral state-supported research efforts include the International Iberian Nanotechnology Laboratory and the Ibercivis distributed computing platform, which are joint research programmes of both Portugal and Spain.
Portugal is a member of several pan-European scientific organizations. With the emergence and growth of several science parks throughout the world that helped create many thousands of scientific, technological and knowledge-based businesses, Portugal started to develop several  science parks across the country.
Companies locate in the Portuguese science parks to take advantage of a variety of services ranging from financial and legal advice through to marketing and technological support.
The European Innovation Scoreboard , placed Portugal-based innovation in the 15th position, with an impressive increase in innovation expenditure and output.
By the earlys, Portugal's fast economic growth with increasing consumption and purchase of new automobiles set the priority for improvements in transportation.
Again in the s, after joining the European Economic Community , the country built many new motorways.
Opened in , the first motorway which linked Lisbon to the National Stadium was an innovative project that made Portugal one of the first countries in the world to establish a motorway this roadway eventually became the Lisbon-Cascais highway, or A5.
Although a few other tracts were created around and , it was only after the beginning of the s that large-scale motorway construction was implemented.
In , Brisa , the highway concessionaire, was founded to handle the management of many of the region's motorways.
On many highways, a toll needs to be paid see Via Verde. Vasco da Gama bridge is the longest bridge in Europe at Lisbon's geographical position makes it a stopover for many foreign airlines at several airports within the country.
The primary flag-carrier is TAP Air Portugal , although many other domestic airlines provide services within and without the country.
The government decided to build a new airport outside Lisbon, in Alcochete , to replace Lisbon Portela Airport , though this plan has been suspended due to austerity measures.
One other important airport is the Aeroporto Internacional das Lajes on the island of Terceira in the Azores. This airport serves as one of two international airports serving countries outside the European Union for all nine islands of the Azores.
It also serves as a military air base for the United States Air Force. The base remains in use to the present day.
A national railway system that extends throughout the country and into Spain, is supported and administered by Comboios de Portugal CP.
The railway network is managed by Infraestruturas de Portugal while the transport of passengers and goods are the responsibility of CP, both public companies.
In , the CP carried ,, passengers and 9,, tonnes 9,, long tons ; 10,, short tons of goods. In Porto , a tram network , of which only a tourist line on the shores of the Douro remains, began construction on 12 September a first for the Iberian Peninsula.
All major cities and towns have their own local urban transport network, as well as taxi services. Portugal has considerable resources of wind and river power, the two most cost-effective renewable energy sources.
Since the turn of the 21st century, there has been a trend towards the development of a renewable resource industry and reduction of both consumption and use of fossil fuels.
New programmes combine wind and water: wind-driven turbines pump water uphill at night, the most blustery period; then the water flows downhill by day, generating electricity, when consumer demand is highest.
Portugal's distribution system is also now a two-way street. Instead of just delivering electricity, it draws electricity from even the smallest generators, like rooftop solar panels.
The government aggressively encouraged such contributions by setting a premium price for those who buy rooftop-generated solar electricity.
In and according to more up-to-date figures, the population decreased to 10,,, although it was an increase compared with The most important demographic influence in the modern Portuguese seems to be the oldest one; current interpretation of Y-chromosome and mtDNA data suggests that the Portuguese have their origin in Paleolithic peoples that began arriving to the European continent around 45, years ago.
All subsequent migrations did leave an impact, genetically and culturally, but the main population source of the Portuguese is still Paleolithic.
Genetic studies show Portuguese populations not to be significantly different from other European populations. With a low confidence range there are Scandinavian and East European genetical markers.
These maritime contacts and the prevalence of R1b haplogroup as the main genetical marker of these countries suggest a common ancestry and cultural proximity.
Other maritime contacts with the Mediterranean especially with Greeks, Phoenicians, Romans and Moors add some particular phenotypes in Southern Portugal and particularly Southern Spain Tartessos culture making Portugal and Northwestern Spain a bridge between North Western Europe and the Mediterranean but maintaining the Atlantic character.
Despite the good economic development in the past three decades the Portuguese were the shortest in Europe since This emerging height gap took place in the s and has increased since.
One of the driving factors was the modest real wage development, given the late industrialization and economic growth in Portugal compared to the European core.
Another determinant was the delayed human capital formation. The total fertility rate TFR as of [update] was estimated at 1.
The structure of Portuguese society is characterized by a significant inequality which in placed the country in the lowest seventh of the Social Justice Index for the European Union.
Portugal's parliament in approved a budget plan for that includes tax breaks for returning emigrants in a bid to lure back those who left during the financial crisis of — The expansionary budget, backed by a left-wing majority in parliament, also aims to boost the purchasing power of households while cutting the already low deficit even further.
Returning emigrants will be allowed to declare only half their taxable income for five years if they return, provided they lived abroad for at least three years.
The "Return Programme" is to run for two years. Around , residents left Portugal between and after the Great Recession. Although some , have since returned, Lisbon wants to tempt the rest to come home — in a similar scheme to the Irish one.
Furthermore, Emigrants returning in and will see their taxes halved as part of the stimulus to bring native Portuguese back and revitalize the population and promote continued economic growth  — as Portugal struggles with a low birth rate and an ageing population.
According to projections by the national statistics office, Portugal's population will fall to 7. In , Portugal had 10,, inhabitants of whom about , were legal immigrants.
Portugal's colonial history has long since been a cornerstone of its national identity, as has its geographic position at the south-western corner of Europe, looking out into the Atlantic Ocean.
It was one of the last western colonial European powers to give up its overseas territories among them Angola and Mozambique in , turning over the administration of Macau to the People's Republic of China at the end of Consequently, it has both influenced and been influenced by cultures from former colonies or dependencies, resulting in immigration from these former territories for both economic and personal reasons.
Portugal, long a country of emigration the vast majority of Brazilians have Portuguese ancestry ,  has now become a country of net immigration,  and not just from the last Indian Portuguese until , African Portuguese until , and Far East Asian Portuguese until overseas territories.
An estimated , Portuguese returned to Portugal as the country's African possessions gained independence in Since the s, along with a boom in construction , several new waves of Ukrainian , Brazilian , Lusophone Africans and other Africans have settled in the country.
Portugal's Romani population is estimated to be at about 40, Numbers of Venezuelan , Pakistani and Indian migrants are also significant.
The workers sometimes get paid less than half the minimum pay established by law. In the interior of the Alentejo there are many African workers.
In addition, a number of EU citizens , mostly from the United Kingdom or other northern European countries, have become permanent residents in the country with the British community being mostly composed of retired pensioners who live in the Algarve and Madeira.
According to the Census, Some 6. Many Portuguese holidays, festivals and traditions have a Christian origin or connotation. Although relations between the Portuguese state and the Roman Catholic Church were generally amiable and stable since the earliest years of the Portuguese nation, their relative power fluctuated.
In the 13th and 14th centuries , the church enjoyed both riches and power stemming from its role in the reconquest , its close identification with early Portuguese nationalism and the foundation of the Portuguese educational system, including its first university.
The growth of the Portuguese overseas empire made its missionaries important agents of colonization , with important roles in the education and evangelization of people from all the inhabited continents.
The growth of liberal and nascent republican movements during the eras leading to the formation of the First Portuguese Republic —26 changed the role and importance of organized religion.
Portugal is a secular state : church and state were formally separated during the First Portuguese Republic, and this was reiterated in the Portuguese Constitution.
Other than the Constitution, the two most important documents relating to religious freedom in Portugal are the Concordata later amended in between Portugal and the Holy See and the Religious Freedom Act.
Portuguese is the official language of Portugal. It is a Romance language that is derived from Galician-Portuguese , which was spoken in what is now Galicia and Northern Portugal.
There are still many similarities between the Galician and Portuguese cultures. Galicia is a consultative observer of the Community of Portuguese Language Countries.
The Portuguese language is derived from the Latin spoken by the romanized pre-Roman peoples of the Iberian Peninsula around years ago — particularly the Celts ,  Conii ,  Lusitanians  and Turduli.
These countries, plus Macau Special Administrative Region People's Republic of China where Portuguese is co-official with Cantonese , make up the Lusosphere , a term derived from the ancient Roman province of " Lusitania ", which currently matches the Portuguese territory south of the Douro river.
Mirandese is also recognized as a co-official regional language in some municipalities of North-Eastern Portugal. It is part of the Astur-Leonese group of languages.
According to the International English Proficiency Index , Portugal has a high proficiency level in English , higher than those of other Romance-speaking European countries like Italy, France or Spain.
The educational system is divided into preschool for those under age 6 , basic education 9 years, in three stages, compulsory , secondary education 3 years, compulsory since , and higher education subdivided in university and polytechnic education.
Universities are usually organized into faculties. Institutes and schools are also common designations for autonomous subdivisions of Portuguese higher education institutions.
The total adult literacy rate is Portuguese primary school enrolments are per cent. Much of that empire was quickly lost, but even then Portugal retained sizable holdings along the African coast, in southern and eastern Asia , and in South America.
Portugal remained a colonial power until the mids, when a peaceful revolution transformed the country from a dictatorship into a democratic republic.
Long among the poorest countries of Europe, Portugal modernized in the last decades of the 20th century, expanding its economy from one based primarily on textile manufacture and livestock raising to include a range of manufactures and services.
The city clings to low but steep hills situated on the right bank of the Tagus and is a popular tourist destination.